- Reseach project
- – Western Pacific
Read the latest updates about the International WaterCentre, as well as contemporary water sector insights, water management news, and conversations with researchers, practitioners and students, from both Australia and abroad.
The failure to separate and contain the faeces of infants and young children, causes significant human health risks to Solomon Islanders. Many situational factors influence the way in which child faeces is managed, including low rates of access to safe sanitation facilities, varying knowledge and beliefs around children’s faeces, and the higher potential for transmission of pathogens from child faeces to children because of hand-to-mouth behaviours. While there is increasing focus on trying to close the sanitation gap for people living in the Solomon Islands, the safe management of children’s faeces is seldom considered.
The project aims to develop a behaviour change intervention that promotes safe child faeces management in rural Solomon Islands villages. To do so, the research team is conducting formative research to learn about current child faeces management practices, attitudes, motives (what makes people do or not do certain things related to child faeces management), and the different roles of men and women in childcare activities.[caption id="attachment_3308" align="alignnone" width="549"] One of the picture cards given to the community. Photo: IWC.[/caption] The research project Promoting Safe Child Faeces Management in Solomon Islands led by the International WaterCentre at Griffith University in partnership with the Solomon Islands National University and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, addressees this issue. The project aims to develop a behaviour change intervention that promotes safe child faeces management in rural Solomon Islands villages. To do so, the research team is conducting formative research to learn about current child faeces management practices, attitudes, motives (what makes people do or not do certain things related to child faeces management), and the different roles of men and women in childcare activities. Talking about faeces and sanitation can be uncomfortable for most people. Likewise, identifying your own motives for doing something that is normally a habit and talking about gender roles and norms can be difficult and complex. To overcome these difficulties, the research team opted to base the research interviews around pictures instead. Sometimes finding words to talk about difficult or complex and abstract topics can be daunting for participants, which is why the picture cards method is appropriate. Using picture cards means respondents can be prompted visually and externalise their replies, which helps to add richness to their responses. [caption id="attachment_3306" align="alignnone" width="545"] Community members discussing the image cards. Photo: IWC.[/caption] It was important to the team that the picture cards we used were contextually relevant and culturally appropriate, which is why we engaged Solomon Islands artists to capture different situations related to daily household activities and child faeces management in rural Solomon Islands. The picture cards tool is available to download and use from the project website here: https://d9g3mju4iidx1.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/13155303/Child-Faeces-Management-IWC-2020-Picture-Cards.pdf If you would like to know more about the research project, please visit our website: http://www.watercentre.org/research/research-impacts/promoting-safe-child-faeces-management-in-solomon-islands/ [caption id="attachment_3307" align="alignnone" width="545"] Community members discussing the image cards. Photo: IWC.[/caption] CFM: The Solomon Islands Infant and Child Faeces Management project is managed by the International WaterCentre at the Australian Rivers Institute within Griffith University and delivered with our research partners Solomon Islands National University, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The research is funded by the Australian Aid’s Water for Women Fund. https://www.watercentre.org/research/research-impacts/promoting-safe-child-faeces-management-in-solomon-islands/
By Diana Gonzalez Botero and Regina Souter, Baseline data collection for Phase 2 of the Pacific Water Community Management Plus (PaCWaM+) project is now underway in Fiji and Solomon Islands. Researchers from The University of the South Pacific (USP) and Solomon Islands National University (SINU) have recently visited 15 communities in Ra Province (Fiji) and Guadalcanal Province (Solomon Islands). The data collection activities are part of a baseline assessment for monitoring and evaluation, prior to the implementation of community-based water management approaches by government and NGO partners. All baseline data collection is expected to be completed by April 2021.
The baseline assessments consist of a WASH household survey to assess the WASH situation and householders’ attitudes and practices, infrastructure inspections of the water system, sanitary risk assessments and water quality testing, as well as key informant interviews.[caption id="attachment_3282" align="aligncenter" width="430"] SINU researchers conducting drinking water quality testing in a rural village in Solomon Islands.[/caption] The baseline assessments consist of a WASH household survey to assess the WASH situation and householders’ attitudes and practices, infrastructure inspections of the water system, sanitary risk assessments and water quality testing, as well as key informant interviews. The data collection activities will be conducted again in communities after the implementation of different community engagement approaches, as part of a ‘before and after’ assessment to determine the impacts of different interventions for improving community-based water management. Another component of data collection involves process monitoring through interviews with implementers from government and NGO partners, to identify strengths and weaknesses, to inform implementation effectiveness and, where appropriate, revision of the approaches. [caption id="attachment_3284" align="aligncenter" width="429"] SINU researchers conducting key informant interviews in a rural village in Solomon Islands.[/caption] The PaCWaM+ project is managed by the International WaterCentre at Griffith University and delivered with our research partners Solomon Islands National University and The University of the South Pacific. The research is funded by the Australian Aid’s Water for Women Fund, and is supported by Plan International Australia, Live & Learn Solomon Islands, Habitat for Humanity Australia and Fiji. [caption id="attachment_3286" align="aligncenter" width="420"] USP researchers conducting drinking water quality testing in a rural village in Fiji.[/caption] For more information, visit our website: http://www.watercentre.org/research/research-impacts/pcwm/ NOTE: Top Banner Photo Credit: LA Times. Collaboration List:
By Senior Project Officer Diana Gonzalez Botero During the first phase of the Pacific Community Water Management Plus (PaCWaM+) research, the teams in Solomon Islands and Fiji spent a week in each study community collecting data about community water management, household water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH) and health situations, water quality, sanitary risk assessment and the socio-economic context. After completing the data collection and analysis, the PaCWaM+ team delivered summary reports and posters back to these communities to inform them of the research findings. The four-page summary report highlights the key findings related to the WASH situation, strengths and weaknesses of the village water system management, people’s perceptions of the main issues in the community, and the key water management challenges experienced by residents. The report also includes key recommendations that community members and leaders can implement to improve their water services, as well as information about hand hygiene in the context of COVID-19.
The report also includes key recommendations that community members and leaders can implement to improve their water services, as well as information about hand hygiene in the context of COVID-19.Copies of the village reports were presented to the Village Chief, the Water Committee, and the village nurse in each community. Additionally, posters were displayed in public places where all the community members could see them. The water committee members who received these reports thanked the research team for conducting the research in their community and for bringing back the results. A water committee chairman from one of the communities said, “the report shares a very powerful message to the village” and noted that they have started planning how the committee can work together with the community to improve their water supply system and management practices based on the research findings. [caption id="attachment_3263" align="aligncenter" width="790"] Community members receive research findings reports. Photo: IWC.[/caption] The PaCWaM+ project is managed by the International WaterCentre at Griffith University and delivered with our research partners, Solomon Islands National University and the University of South Pacific. The research is funded by the Australian Aid’s Water for Women Fund, and is supported by Plan International Australia, Live & Learn Solomon Islands, Habitat for Humanity Australia and Fiji. To learn more, visit: www.watercentre.org/research/pcwm
By Dr Andre Taylor On the 13th of October 2020, 43 IWC alumni who had completed the IWC Water Leadership Program (WLP) over the last 10 years participated in an online, half day workshop. The workshop provided an environment for alumni to reconnect with each other, reflect on the extent to which they are still managing their development as leaders, share valuable leadership resources, and plan what innovative activities they would like to tackle in the future. The workshop also included an interactive session on coaching skills for leaders which was led by IWC leadership coach, Wouter Lincklaen Arriens. Commenting on the success of the workshop, Dr André Taylor, the IWC’s Leadership Specialist, reflected that, “the workshop was tremendous. Originally we had planned to run this event as a face-to-face workshop in Melbourne, but we had to move it online. In retrospect, that adaptation was a ‘blessing in disguise’ as it enabled us to engage a broader audience to discuss the nature of future alumni activities. We now have a clear direction for these activities.” Highlights from the workshop included: · Using a live poll exercise to explore the leadership development activities that alumni are using after completing the WLP. For example, it was terrific to see that 79% of workshop participants “frequently” or “often” take opportunities to help others to build their leadership capacity (e.g. they mentor others). · The opportunity to share a wide variety of leadership-related resources (e.g. pod casts, books, communities of practice, videos) that alumni have discovered since completing the WLP. · The opportunity to provide alumni with access to up-to-date WLP resources (i.e. a set of 27 one-page summaries of key concepts are currently used in the program). · Planning future activities. For example, feedback from participants indicated strong support for routinely running half day, interactive, online workshops every six months to help alumni to continue to grow as water leaders.
By Dr Ni Made Utami Dwipayanti, Dr Johanna Loehr, Dr Anindrya Nastiti, and Bronwyn Powell, COVID-19 is impacting people’s lives around the world. It has forced many to take up working from home and is affecting how international research projects are conducted, especially for projects where co-design with stakeholders is required. The International WaterCentre, Griffith University, is working on a DFAT supported Water for Women project in partnership with the University of Udayana, Institute of Technology Bandung and University of the South Pacific, researching water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-at-Work in hotels in Fiji and Indonesia. The project’s aim is to engage hotels in improving gender equity, disability and social inclusion (GEDSI) WASH-at Work practices, which consider WASH beyond the hotel, including staff, their families and the wider destination. While the project’s focus will help hotels and destinations address new challenges, the current COVID-19 pandemic has created and received wide stakeholder interest; the pandemic has also created new challenges as to how to conduct the project under the current circumstances. An important part of most research projects is to engage with relevant stakeholders to more effectively understand the local context, gain input into project design, collect data, verify or test findings and inform implementation. COVID-19 induced travel restrictions and social distancing requirements impact the format such engagement can take and for a while constrained any form of in-person contact. After some delays, the project recently completed formative research data collection and analysis to understand norms and attitudes to GEDSI WASH-at-Work in Mandalika, Lombok. Mandalika is a popular destination for international and domestic tourists as an alternative to Bali due to its natural beauty, beaches, diving and surfing. Between 2015 and 2019 tourist visits doubled to over 2 million per year and are expected to grow further once travel restrictions are lifted. The project works in partnership with Mitra Samya, a local NGO, and their researchers were able to continue face-to-face data collection using online and social distancing measures. To complete the first formative research phase, a large face-to-face stakeholder engagement workshop had been planned to present and validate findings to government officials, NGOs, tourism operators and community representatives. Gaining stakeholder input in the development of inclusive WASH-at-Work tools was a critical step to inform the next phase, i.e. co-design of the project. Stakeholder input also helps to build and maintain relationships, which are important for the testing of tools and the overall implementation phase. During the height of COVID-19 restrictions, all engagement was limited to online or phone interviews. However, there are advantages to gathering all stakeholders together for a workshop, as it allows the exchange of viewpoints, experiences and information between stakeholders builds trust and confidence between different stakeholders, enables group discussion and the opportunity for the group to agree on priorities. The project team considered a stakeholder workshop critical to the project’s success and thanks to the logistics, planning skills and coordination of in-country team members and partners, a successful multi-modal workshop was held in Mandalika, Lombok, Indonesia in September 2020. [caption id="attachment_3246" align="aligncenter" width="636"] Workshop activities in Indonesia. Photo:Zoni Mitra Samya.[/caption] How to conduct a bi-lingual, multi-stakeholder workshop during a pandemic For the Inclusive WASH-at-Work project, it was important for multiple stakeholder groups from different locations to participate. These included hotel managers and community representatives from Mandalika, as well as provincial planning, tourism and health government representatives based in Central Lombok and Mataram, tourism associations located in Central Lombok, NGOs and academics located in Mataram. The research team consists of members based in Brisbane, Australia, including the project director and chief investigator, the in-country lead based in Denpasar, Bali, a researcher in Bandung, West Java and research assistants based in Lombok. Travel restrictions made it impossible for all team members to attend an in-person workshop. Many people would now have experienced online meetings, seminars and workshops, which many have argued have made access to presentations, online conferences and webinars more inclusive, eliminating the cost and time of travel. The challenge facing the project was that many local stakeholders, in particular community representatives, did not have access to such platforms, as these require a phone or computer and a reliable internet connection, which throws doubt on the inclusivity of such platforms. To ensure representation and input from all stakeholder groups, the project team decided to conduct a multi-modal workshop that would be delivered both online and in-person. Due to the online component, the initial one-day workshop was split into two half-days, to ensure participants did not become weary. The set up Local stakeholders were invited to an in-person workshop at the local site, adhering to social distancing. The Central Lombok Planning Office set aside a large room in their government building in the capital of Central Lombok, which was set up with a projector, internet connection to connect with other online participants and a microphone that connected to the online platform. Seats were spread around a large U-shape table, adhering to social distancing requirements. Several microphones were provided on the tables Project team members and other stakeholders joined the workshop from their offices or homes elsewhere in Indonesia and Australia via the online meeting platform Zoom. Facilitation The room as well as all online participants were connected via Zoom. The in-country lead facilitated the majority of the workshop online, in particular, the presentation of results delivered by project members, partly in English and then translated into Bahasa Indonesia for participants who did not speak English. Stakeholder discussions and activities are important elements of workshops. Local research assistants facilitated in-room discussion for participatory activities that required input from in-room participants only. For group discussion, all participants were spilt into three groups. Each group consisted of in-room and online participants; there were three computers providing in-room connection to the Zoom platform with three different rooms. The three rooms allowed for online participants to be involved in breakout discussion sessions. The discussion in each group was conducted in Bahasa Indonesia. Each group was led by a facilitator, either in-person or online, and was supported by one notetaker. For the presentation of group discussions, all groups returned to the main session. One of the local researchers took notes and translated key messages into English, which were posted on the Zoom chat to allow Australian colleagues to keep up with workshop discussion and respond to questions raised. [caption id="attachment_3243" align="aligncenter" width="614"] Group discussion, facilitated by in-room facilitators that also connected to participants on the Zoom platform. Photo: Zoni Mitra Samya.[/caption] Lessons learned Workshop outcomes and stakeholder feedback following the workshop were positive indicating that workshops can be conducted even with severe constraints, as long as participants show some flexibility. Using a multi-modal workshop made the workshop more inclusive and enabled the project team to connect a wide range of stakeholders even during times of travel restrictions. To facilitate a workshop that runs both online and in-person, planning and preparation are essential. For our team this included setting up and testing sound, image and internet quality in each location, having a well-planned agenda including time buffers, and detailed briefing of all facilitators. Activities need to be planned to engage in-room participants and participants joining online. In person representation and facilitation of the workshop and activities in each room are also critical so that in-person workshop attendees don’t have to listen to presenters on screen all day. Our experience shows that workshops don’t require everyone to be physically present and that they can be inclusive and successful even in difficult times. This learning is also applicable to provincial level officers and experts, who usually have a tight schedule, to join and monitor the workshop from a distance. Bringing people together allowed them to exchange their recent experiences and talk about a joint approach to moving forward and into the co-design of Inclusive WASH-at-Work guidelines. The team is becoming adept at running multi-modal workshops and will be planning more. Acknowledgements This research project is funded by the Australian Government and implemented by International WaterCentre as part of the Water for Women Fund. This blog post was written by Dr Ni Made Utami Dwipayanti, University of Udayana, Dr Anindrya Nastiti, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Dr Johanna Loehr, Bronwyn Powell and Prof. Helen Johnson, International WaterCentre, Griffith University. We would like to thank and acknowledge our colleagues in this project, Dr Dawn Gibson, Nanise Masau, Patricia Bibi, Dr Chris Fleming and Dr Wade Hadwen. [caption id="attachment_3245" align="aligncenter" width="359"] Professor Helen Johnson delivering live presentations online to workshop participants, with translation provided by online facilitators. Photo: International WaterCentre.[/caption]